Book publishing is an industry which is changing a bit at the moment. Printed books are declining slightly and electronic books are growing. This means that printing is less of a cost these days but having facilities to produce electronic books is more of focus instead. There are still many similarities though and there are many steps to publishing a book as well as to selling it.
Publishing process and costs
When publishing books there is a lot of work to do before the book is ready to be printed. Firstly it has to be chosen. Publishers will be sent lots of requests from authors to publish their book and they will need to decide which of those books they think they will be able to make a profit out of. They will have to consider the competition, the genre, the trends in book sales and the quality of the book so that they can decide. The book needs to be edited and proof read and the layout needs to be done. This takes time and there will need to be specially trained staff to be able to do this. The book may then need to be printed or made ready for electronic purchase.
Selling books and making money
Making the books is just the first stage, they then need to be sold. Physical books may be put in catalogues in the hope that book shops will stock them and online sales will need to be organised. Ebooks will need to be made available in the app stores as well. Then the marketing will begin. Authors often do book tours, organised by their publishers, where they will do a book signing or even some sort of presentation to promote their book. There will also be other promotion as well, such as social media and other online promotion and possibly other forms as well.

After all of these costs the publisher will make back the money by selling the book. They will keep the money from the sales, once the wholesalers and retailers have taken their cut. A small percentage will also be paid to the author. They will need to sell enough copies of the book to be able to cover their costs of publishing. By working hard to encourage people to buy the book, they will have a better chance to make back their money. This means that they will need to risk more money on advertising in order to do this. Unless potential customers re aware that a book is available then they will not buy it. They may also need to be reminded a few times before they remember to purchase it. This means that finding efficient advertising is worth it. This is where social media can be handy as some advertising can be done free of charge; although you can pay for some which will appeal to more people. This needs to be done in the long term as well, to make sure that the sakes of the book are steady for a prolonged period of time. Therefore a publisher will need to spend a lot of money in advance in order to secure an income from a book.